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Run a full fsck(8). Preen mode only checks a couple of things. And make sure it actually fixes any errors it finds. It sounds like it's not fixing things and therefor the filesystem is still dirty.Notably, I ran fsck -p before mount -uw /
-p Enter preen mode. In preen mode, only a restricted class of innocuous file system inconsistencies will be corrected. If unexpected inconsistencies caused by hardware or software failures are encountered, the check program will exit with a failure. See the manual pages for the individual check programs for a list of the sorts of failures that they correct when running in preen mode.