How to authorize an user non root

That would not be a whole system?
It would take lots of work. Your editor must be robust enough to edit a very very large source file. Compile times would be long. Editing one line requires rebuilding everything. The compiler and/or linker might run out of memory and crash.
You would still need to compile and line loadable kernel modules separately. Ditto for user libraries.
What is the advantage of using anything but su to issue commands as root?

I always make myself a member of the wheel and operator groups but have never used anything but su. I know I'm root and what I'm doing as root. When I'm done I log out to my user account.

I do know I was advised against it when talking about Solaris, but I don't see the advantage of security/sudo and have never even installed it.
I did the same all the time too :). Today I installed security/doas I will try how it works...