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Understanding storage on embedded devices

balanga

Daemon

Thanks: 49
Messages: 1,729

#1
I'm finding it difficult to understand how storage is addressed on embedded devices...eg terms such as nand and mmc.... My ongoing project of getting FreeBSD working on GoFlex Home unit has stalled because I don't understand how uboots work. I know I can boot from internal memory, USB, Sata or Network and where I boot from is set by various parameters passed to uboot. I'm trying to follow instructions for updating the bootloader which has a link to
http://projects.doozan.com/uboot/
Code:
cd /tmp wget http://projects.doozan.com/uboot/install_uboot_mtd0.sh 
chmod +x install_uboot_mtd0.sh 
./install_uboot_mtd0.sh
Here is the shell script which needs to be run - not sure what mtd0 is, or what flash and nand refers to

Code:
#!/bin/sh
#
# Install uBoot on mtd0

# Copyright (c) 2010-2012 Jeff Doozan
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
# of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
# in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
# to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
# furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
# all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
# IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
# THE SOFTWARE.

# Version 1.1 [6/2/2012] Download files from download.doozan.com

VALID_UBOOT_MD5=http://jeff.doozan.com/uboot/valid-uboot.md5

# It is NOT a good idea to start your own mirror
# You should leave this as-is
MIRROR=http://download.doozan.com/uboot

UBOOT_MTD0_BASE_URL=$MIRROR/files/uboot/uboot.mtd0 # .platform.version.kwb will be appended to this
UBOOT_ENV_URL=$MIRROR/files/environment/uboot.environment

BLPARAM_URL=$MIRROR/blparam
NANDDUMP_URL=$MIRROR/nanddump
NANDWRITE_URL=$MIRROR/nandwrite
FLASH_ERASE_URL=$MIRROR/flash_erase
FW_PRINTENV_URL=$MIRROR/fw_printenv
FW_CONFIG_URL=$MIRROR/fw_env.config


UBOOT_MTD0=/tmp/uboot.mtd0.kwb
UBOOT_ORIGINAL=/uboot-original-mtd0.kwb
UBOOT_ENV=/tmp/uboot.environment

BLPARAM=/usr/sbin/blparam
NANDDUMP=/usr/sbin/nanddump
NANDWRITE=/usr/sbin/nandwrite
FLASH_ERASE=/usr/sbin/flash_erase
FW_PRINTENV=/usr/sbin/fw_printenv
FW_SETENV=/usr/sbin/fw_setenv
FW_CONFIG=/etc/fw_env.config


verify_md5 ()
{
  local file=$1
  local md5=$2

  local check_md5=$(cat "$md5" | cut -d' ' -f1)
  local file_md5=$(md5sum "$file" | cut -d' ' -f1)

  if [ "$check_md5" = "$file_md5" ]; then
   return 0
  else
   return 1
  fi
}

download_and_verify ()
{
  local file_dest=$1
  local file_url=$2

  local md5_dest="$file_dest.md5"
  local md5_url="$file_url.md5"

  # Always download a fresh MD5, in case a newer version is available
  if [ -f "$md5_dest" ]; then rm -f "$md5_dest"; fi
  wget -O "$md5_dest" "$md5_url"
  # retry the download if it failed
  if [ ! -f "$md5_dest" ]; then
   wget -O "$md5_dest" "$md5_url"
   if [ ! -f "$md5_dest" ]; then
     return 1 # Could not get md5
   fi
  fi

  # If the file already exists, check the MD5
  if [ -f "$file_dest" ]; then
   verify_md5 "$file_dest" "$md5_dest"
   if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
     rm -f "$md5_dest"
     return 0
   else
     rm -f "$file_dest"
   fi
 fi

  # Download the file
  wget -O "$file_dest" "$file_url"
  # retry the download if it failed
  verify_md5 "$file_dest" "$md5_dest"
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   # Download failed or MD5 did not match, try again
   if [ -f "$file_dest" ]; then rm -f "$file_dest"; fi
   wget -O "$file_dest" "$file_url"
   verify_md5 "$file_dest" "$md5_dest"
   if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
     rm -f "$md5_dest"
     return 1
   fi
  fi

  rm -f "$md5_dest"
  return 0
}

install ()
{
  local file_dest=$1
  local file_url=$2
  local file_pmask=$3  # Permissions mask

  echo "# checking for $file_dest..."

  # Install target file if it doesn't already exist
  if [ ! -s "$file_dest" ]; then
   echo ""
   echo "# Installing $file_dest..."

   # Check for read-only filesystem by testing
   #  if we can delete the existing 0 byte file
   #  or, if we can create a 0 byte file
   local is_readonly=0
   if [ -f "$file_dest" ]; then
     rm -f "$file_dest" 2> /dev/null
   else
     touch "$file_dest" 2> /dev/null
   fi
   if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
     local is_readonly=0
     mount -o remount,rw /
   fi
   rm -f "$file_dest" 2> /dev/null

   download_and_verify "$file_dest" "$file_url"
   if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
     echo "## Could not install $file_dest from $file_url, exiting."
     if [ "$is_readonly" = "1" ]; then
       mount -o remount,ro /
     fi
     exit 1
   fi

   chmod $file_pmask "$file_dest"

   if [ "$is_readonly" = "1" ]; then
     mount -o remount,ro /
   fi

   echo "# Successfully installed $file_dest."
  fi

  return 0
}

# Parse command line
for i in $*
do
  case $i in
   --force-platform=*)
     FORCE_PLATFORM=`echo $i | sed 's/[-a-zA-Z0-9]*=//'`
     echo "Forcing platform to [$FORCE_PLATFORM]"
     ;;
   --no-uboot-check)
     NO_UBOOT_CHECK=1
     ;;
   --noprompt)
     NOPROMPT=1
     ;;
   *)
     ;;
  esac
done


if [ "$NOPROMPT" != "1" ]; then
  echo ""
  echo ""
  echo "!!!!!!  DANGER DANGER DANGER DANGER DANGER DANGER  !!!!!!"
  echo ""
  echo "If you lose power to your device while running this script,"
  echo "it could be left in an unusable state."
  echo ""
  echo "This script will replace the bootloader on /dev/mtd0."
  echo ""
  echo "This installer will only work on the following devices:"
  echo " Seagate Dockstar"
  echo " Seagate GoFlex Net"
  echo " Seagate GoFlex Home"
  echo " Pogoplug v1"
  echo " Pogoplug Pink (v2)"
  echo "Do not run this installer on any other device."
  echo ""
  echo "By typing ok, you agree to assume all liabilities and risks "
  echo "associated with running this installer."
  echo ""
  echo -n "If you agree, type 'ok' and press ENTER to continue: "

  read IS_OK
  if [ "$IS_OK" != "OK" -a "$IS_OK" != "Ok" -a "$IS_OK" != "ok" ];
  then
   echo "Exiting. uBoot was not installed."
   exit 1
  fi

fi

install "$NANDWRITE"        "$NANDWRITE_URL"         755
install "$NANDDUMP"         "$NANDDUMP_URL"          755
install "$FLASH_ERASE"      "$FLASH_ERASE_URL"       755
install "$FW_PRINTENV"      "$FW_PRINTENV_URL"       755
install "$FW_CONFIG"        "$FW_CONFIG_URL"         644
if [ ! -f "$FW_SETENV" ]; then
  ln -s "$FW_PRINTENV" "$FW_SETENV" 2> /dev/null
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   mount -o remount,rw /
   ln -s "$FW_PRINTENV" "$FW_SETENV"
   mount -o remount,ro /
  fi
fi


# Dump existing uBoot and compare it to a database of known versions

echo ""
echo "# Validating existing uBoot..."

# dump the first 512k of mtd0 to /tmp
$NANDDUMP --noecc --omitoob -l 0x80000 -f /tmp/uboot-mtd0-dump /dev/mtd0

wget -O "/tmp/valid-uboot.md5" "$VALID_UBOOT_MD5"

UPDATE_UBOOT=1
UBOOT_PLATFORM=
CURRENT_UBOOT_MD5=$(md5sum "/tmp/uboot-mtd0-dump" | cut -d' ' -f1)
UBOOT_DETAILS=$(grep $CURRENT_UBOOT_MD5 /tmp/valid-uboot.md5 | head -1)
if [ "$UBOOT_DETAILS" != "" ]; then
  UBOOT_PLATFORM=$(echo $UBOOT_DETAILS | sed 's/^\w* \(\w*\) .*$/\1/')
  UBOOT_VERSION=$(echo $UBOOT_DETAILS | sed 's/^\w* \w* \(.*\)$/\1/')
  echo "## Valid uBoot detected: [$UBOOT_PLATFORM $UBOOT_VERSION]"
else
  echo "## Unknown uBoot detected on mtd0: $CURRENT_UBOOT_MD5"
  echo "##"
  if [ "$NO_UBOOT_CHECK" != "1" ]; then
   echo "## The installer could not detect the version of your current uBoot"
   echo "## This may happen if you have installed a different uBoot on"
   echo "## /dev/mtd0 or if you have bad blocks on /dev/mtd0"
   echo "##"
   echo "## If you have bad blocks on mtd0, you should not try to install uBoot."
#    echo "##"
#    echo "## If you have installed a diffirent uBoot on mtd0, and understand the"
#    echo "## risks, you can re-run the installer with the --no-uboot-check parameter"
   echo "##"
   echo "## Installation cancelled."
   rm "/tmp/valid-uboot.md5"
   exit 1
  else
   echo "## --no-uboot-check flag detected, continuing installation"

   while [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "" ]; do
     echo ""
     echo "############################################"
     echo "Your device could not be auto-detected."
     echo ""
     echo "You must be using a device listed below to run this installer."
     echo ""
     echo "What device are you using? Type the number of your device and press ENTER."
     echo "1 - Seagate Dockstar"
     echo "2 - Seagate GoFlex Net"
     echo "3 - Seagate GoFlex Home"
     echo "4 - Pogoplug v1"
     echo "5 - Pogoplug v2 - Pink"
     echo "6 - Other"
     read device

     if [ "$device" = "1" ]; then
       echo "Selected Dockstar"
       UBOOT_PLATFORM="dockstar"
       UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
     elif [ "$device" = "2" ]; then
       echo "Selected Seagate GoFlex Net"
       UBOOT_PLATFORM="goflexnet"
       UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
     elif [ "$device" = "3" ]; then
       echo "Selected Seagate GoFlex Home"
       UBOOT_PLATFORM="goflexhome"
       UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
     elif [ "$device" = "4" ]; then
       echo "Selected Pogoplug v1"
       UBOOT_PLATFORM="pogov1"
       UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
     elif [ "$device" = "5" ]; then
       echo "Selected Pogoplug v2 - Pink"
       UBOOT_PLATFORM="pinkpogo"
       UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
     elif [ "$device" = "6" ]; then
       echo "Selected Other Device, exiting"
       echo "This installer is only compatible with the listed devices."
       exit 1
     else
       echo "Invalid Input"
     fi
   done

  fi
fi

if [ "$FORCE_PLATFORM" != "" -a "$FORCE_PLATFORM" != "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" ]; then
  echo "## --force-platform paramater [$FORCE_PLATFORM] does not match detected platform [$UBOOT_PLATFORM]."
  echo -n "Are you sure your device is a "$FORCE_PLATFORM"? [y/N] "
  read FORCE
  if [ "$FORCE" = "y" -o "$FORCE" = "Y" ]; then
   echo "## Forcing installation of [$FORCE_PLATFORM] platform"
   UBOOT_PLATFORM=$FORCE_PLATFORM
   UBOOT_VERSION="unknown"
  else
   echo "## Exiting. No changes were made to mtd0."
   exit 1
  fi
fi

UBOOT_IS_CURRENT=$(echo $UBOOT_VERSION | grep -c current)
if [ "$UBOOT_IS_CURRENT" = "1" ]; then
  echo "## The newest uBoot is already installed on mtd0."
  UPDATE_UBOOT=0
else
  UBOOT_CURRENT=$(grep $UBOOT_PLATFORM /tmp/valid-uboot.md5 | grep current | head -1 | sed 's/^\w* \w* \(.*\)-current$/\1/')
fi

rm "/tmp/valid-uboot.md5"

# If this is the first time this installer has been run in the
# original Pogoplug enviroment, check if the user wants to disable
# the Pogoplug services
if [ -d /usr/local/cloudengines/ -a ! -e $UBOOT_ORIGINAL ]; then
  killall hbwd
  echo ""
  echo ""
  echo ""
  echo "DISABLE POGOPLUG SERVICES"
  echo ""
  echo "The pogoplug service includes an auto-update feature which could"
  echo "be used to cripple or disable your device.  It is recommended"
  echo "that you disable this service."
  echo ""
  echo "NOTE: The pogoplug service is proprietary software"
  echo "created by Cloud Engines.  It is not available for use"
  echo "in other distributions and will not be available in"
  echo "your new linux installation even if you choose not to disable it."
  echo ""
  echo -n "Would you like to disable the pogoplug services? [Y/n] "
  read DISABLE
  if [ "$DISABLE" = "" -o "$DISABLE" = "y" -o "$DISABLE" = "Y" ];
  then

   echo "Applying fixes to the pogoplug environment..."

   mount -o rw,remount /

   # Add /sbin to the path and cleanup the shell prompt
   if [ ! -f /root/.bash_profile ]; then
     echo -e \
  "export PS1='\h:\w\$ '
  export PATH='/usr/bin:/bin:/sbin'
  " > /root/.bash_profile
   fi

   chmod go+w /dev/null

   # Re-enable dropbear (updated dockstars only)
   sed -i 's/^#\/usr\/sbin\/dropbear/\/usr\/sbin\/dropbear/' /etc/init.d/db > /dev/null 2>&1

   echo "Disabling the pogoplug service..."
   # Comment out the line that starts hmbgr.sh
   sed -i 's/^\/etc\/init.d\/hbmgr.sh start/#Uncomment the line below to enable the pogoplug service\n#\/etc\/init.d\/hbmgr.sh start/' /etc/init.d/rcS

   mount -o ro,remount /

   echo "Done fixing pogoplug environment."
   echo ""
  fi

  UBOOT_ORIGINAL_URL="$UBOOT_MTD0_BASE_URL.$UBOOT_PLATFORM.original.kwb"
  install "$UBOOT_ORIGINAL"   "$UBOOT_ORIGINAL_URL"    644

  install "$BLPARAM"          "$BLPARAM_URL"           755

  if   [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "pinkpogo"  ]; then BOOTCMD='nand read.e 0x800000 0x100000 0x200000; setenv bootargs $(console) $(bootargs_root); bootm 0x800000'
  # dockstar, goflex, and pogov1 have the same bootcmd
  else BOOTCMD='nand read.e 0x800000 0x100000 0x300000; setenv bootargs $(console) $(bootargs_root); bootm 0x800000'
  fi
  $BLPARAM "bootcmd=$BOOTCMD" > /dev/null 2>&1

  # Preserve the MAC address
  ENV_ETHADDR=`$BLPARAM | grep "^ethaddr=" | cut -d'=' -f 2-`
fi



# Download and install the latest uBoot
if [ "$UPDATE_UBOOT" = "1" ]; then

  echo ""
  echo "# Installing uBoot"
  UBOOT_MTD0_URL="$UBOOT_MTD0_BASE_URL.$UBOOT_PLATFORM.$UBOOT_CURRENT.kwb"
  echo "## Installing $UBOOT_PLATFORM $UBOOT_CURRENT"

  if [ -f "$UBOOT_MTD0" ]; then rm "$UBOOT_MTD0"; fi
  download_and_verify "$UBOOT_MTD0" "$UBOOT_MTD0_URL"
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   echo "## uBoot could not be downloaded, or the MD5 does not match."
   echo "## Exiting. No changes were made to mtd0."
   exit 1
  fi

  # Write new uBoot to mtd0
  # Erase the first 512k
  $FLASH_ERASE /dev/mtd0 0 4

  $NANDWRITE /dev/mtd0 $UBOOT_MTD0

  # dump mtd0 and compare the checksum, to make sure it installed properly
  $NANDDUMP --noecc --omitoob -l 0x80000 -f /tmp/mtd0.uboot /dev/mtd0
  echo "## Verifying new uBoot..."
  if [ -f "$UBOOT_MTD0.md5" ]; then rm "$UBOOT_MTD0.md5"; fi
  wget -O "$UBOOT_MTD0.md5" "$UBOOT_MTD0_URL.md5"

  verify_md5 "/tmp/mtd0.uboot" "$UBOOT_MTD0.md5"
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   rm -f "$UBOOT.md5"
   echo "##"
   echo "##"
   echo "## VERIFICATION FAILED!"
   echo "##"
   echo "## uBoot was not properly installed to mtd0."
   echo "##"
   echo "##"
   echo "## YOUR DEVICE MAY BE IN AN UNUSABLE STATE."
   echo "## DO NOT REBOOT OR POWER OFF YOUR DEVICE"
   echo "##"
   echo "##"
   echo "## Make a backup of /tmp/uboot-mtd0-dump someplace safe and"
   echo "## then re-run this installer."
   exit 1
  else
   echo "# Verified successfully!"
  fi
  rm -f "$UBOOT_MTD0.md5"

fi

if [ "$UPDATE_UBOOT" = "0" ]; then
  UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT=0
elif [ "$UBOOT_VERSION" = "original" -o "$UBOOT_VERSION" = "unknown" ]; then
  UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT=1
else  # Updating uboot, but it's from a known "new" uboot, no need to reset the environment
  UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT=0
fi

if [ "$UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT" = "0" -a "$1" != "--noprompt" ]; then
  echo ""
  echo ""
  if [ "$UPDATE_UBOOT" = "0" ]; then
   echo "You are already running the latest uBoot."
  else
   echo "You are already running a modern uBoot."
  fi
  echo "Your current uBoot environment should be reasonable.  However, if you're having"
  echo "any probems booting, you can reset the environment variables to know good values."
  echo -n "Would you like to reset the uBoot environment? [N/y] "
  read PROMPT
  if [ "$PROMPT" = "y" -o "$PROMPT" = "Y" ]; then
   UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT=1
  fi
fi

if [ "$UPDATE_UBOOT_ENVIRONMENT" = "1" ]; then
  echo ""
  echo "# Installing uBoot environment"

  # Preserve the MAC address
  if [ "$ENV_ETHADDR" = "" ]; then
   ENV_ETHADDR=`$FW_PRINTENV ethaddr 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`
  fi

  # Preserve the 'rescue_installed' setting
  ENV_RESCUE_INSTALLED=`$FW_PRINTENV rescue_installed 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`
  if [ "$ENV_RESCUE_INSTALLED" = "" ]; then
   ENV_BOOTCMD_RESCUE=`$FW_PRINTENV bootcmd_rescue 2> /dev/null`
   if [ "$ENV_BOOTCMD_RESCUE" != "" ]; then
     ENV_RESCUE_INSTALLED=1
   fi
  fi

  # Preserve the arcNumber value
  ENV_ARCNUMBER=`$FW_PRINTENV arcNumber 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`

  # Preserve the custom kernel parameters
  ENV_RESCUE_CUSTOM=`$FW_PRINTENV rescue_custom_params 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`
  ENV_USB_CUSTOM=`$FW_PRINTENV usb_custom_params 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`
  ENV_UBIFS_CUSTOM=`$FW_PRINTENV ubifs_custom_params 2> /dev/null | cut -d'=' -f 2-`

  # Install the uBoot environment
  download_and_verify "$UBOOT_ENV" "$UBOOT_ENV_URL"
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   echo "## Could not install uBoot environment, exiting"
   exit 1
  fi
  $FLASH_ERASE /dev/mtd0 0xc0000 1
  $NANDWRITE -s 786432 /dev/mtd0 "$UBOOT_ENV"

  echo ""
  echo "# Verifying uBoot environment"

  # Verify the uBoot environment
  $NANDDUMP --noecc --omitoob -f "/tmp/uboot.environment" -s 0xc0000 -l 0x20000 /dev/mtd0
  wget -O "$UBOOT_ENV.md5" "$UBOOT_ENV_URL.md5"
  verify_md5 "/tmp/uboot.environment" "$UBOOT_ENV.md5"
  if [ "$?" -ne "0" ]; then
   rm -f "$UBOOT_ENV.md5"
   echo "## VERIFICATION FAILED!"
   echo "## uBoot environment was not properly written to mtd0.  Please re-run this installer."
   exit 1
  fi
  rm -f "$UBOOT_ENV.md5"

  $FW_SETENV ethaddr $ENV_ETHADDR
  if [ "$ENV_RESCUE_INSTALLED" = "1" ]; then $FW_SETENV rescue_installed $ENV_RESCUE_INSTALLED; fi
  if [ "$ENV_RESCUE_CUSTOM" != "" ]; then $FW_SETENV rescue_custom_params $ENV_RESCUE_CUSTOM; fi
  if [ "$ENV_USB_CUSTOM" != "" ]; then $FW_SETENV usb_custom_params $ENV_USB_CUSTOM; fi
  if [ "$ENV_UBIFS_CUSTOM" != "" ]; then $FW_SETENV ubifs_custom_params $ENV_UBIFS_CUSTOM; fi
  if [ "$ENV_ARCNUMBER" != "" ]; then
   $FW_SETENV arcNumber $ENV_ARCNUMBER
  # If there was no arcNumber set, then this is probably a new install.
  # Set the default arcNumber for the platform
  # Note: As of 10/24/2010 everything will default to the SHEEVAPLUG arcNumber (2097)
  # at some point, they should start using the newer dockstar ID (2998) but currently the most
  # common kernels do not support the Dockstar machine ID
  else
   $FW_SETENV arcNumber 2097
   echo ""
   echo ""
   echo "# Setting arcNumber to 2097 (SheevaPlug)"
   echo "# Note: if you have a kernel that supports your platform, you should use the proper arcNumber."
   echo "# You can set the correct arcNumber by running the following command:"
   if   [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "dockstar" ];  then echo $FW_SETENV arcNumber 2998
   elif [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "goflexhome" ]; then echo $FW_SETENV arcNumber 3089
   elif [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "goflexnet" ]; then echo $FW_SETENV arcNumber 3089
   elif [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "pinkpogo" ];  then echo $FW_SETENV arcNumber 2998
   elif [ "$UBOOT_PLATFORM" = "pogov1" ];    then echo $FW_SETENV arcNumber 2998
   fi
  fi

fi

echo ""
echo "# uBoot installation has completed successfully."
I would run this but the instructions say
Remove any USB devices and reboot your device. After connecting to it with SSH, run the following commands:
referring to the above - the problem is I can only manage to boot from USB.