How long does it take for a port to appear in the pkg repo?

I've ported a few things now, they are available in the ports tree but pkg cannot find them.

When will my ports be available as binary packages? Is there anything to do on my part besides wait?

I'd usually expect a port to be built within a week or so - in the latest repo that is.

However bear in mind that recent FreeBSD versions use the quarterly pkg repo by default. This takes a snapshot of the ports tree every 3 months and only pulls in security fixes. If you miss the snapshot, your port won't appear in the quarterly builds till the next snapshot.

You can see what's in each pkg repo here:
On 11-amd64 the repository gets updated round about every two days.