Certainly, I agree with qsecofr. However the original question was whether presence of compilers would present security risk. I still stand the opinion, that the lack of compilers cannot stop an determined attacker in any way. Proper security measures and more importantly, processes can.
From my own experience:
In the days of BSD/OS, I had a (large) number of machines, that were specifically configured without any build tools. The primary reason was of course resource preservation, but at the time I did feel safer that way. I also happen to have pet hacker. That person had as the goal of their life to break into some of my machines.
As he was quite persistent, that gave me the perfect opportunity to observe and study this behavior
As BSD/OS was commercial software it was not available for download, yet it was enough widespread. That prompted my hacker to go research for an available BSD/OS computer, break in there and have access to the compiler (and libraries). He was then lucky to live until the telnet buffer overflow bug happened and could successfully gain root access to one of my machines. Well.. he didn't know I don't use telnet to access there, nor any of the methods he envisioned to trojan -- and my sync process distributed patched binaries -- yet, the hacker had their 15 minute victory. So, not having compilers did not help at all. Proactive monitoring and management did. It would have been nightmare to patch that number of system that fast manually...
Later attacks, most of them were using interpreted code. So again, no need to have an compiler online. They were unsucessful for other reasons anyway.
Quality control is however completely different thing. My observation unfortunately indicates, that some very respectable and supposedly security-minded companies have failed to realise, that you need quality control at all levels -- and this means very knowledgeable people at all levels. Including the people who hit the last ENTER.
It doesn't help you have separate build, test, qualify and deployment systems, if at any time there is weak security.